Capital markets are venues where savings and investments are channelled between the suppliers who have capital and those who are in need of capital. The entities who have capital include retail and institutional investors while those who seek capital are businesses, governments, and people.
Capital markets are composed of primary and secondary markets. The most common capital markets are the stock market and the bond market. Capital markets seek to improve transactional efficiencies. These markets bring those who hold capital and those seeking capital together and provide a place where entities can exchange securities.
The capital market is bifurcated in two segments, primary market and secondary market:
Accounting rate of return is also known as Average rate of return which gives the financial ratio used in capital budgeting. The ratio takes time value of money factor which calculates the return and the net income can be generated from the proposed capital investment. It is used to show the percentage return. The formula of computation is:
ARR= Average profit/average investment
Steps which are taken to control the capital budgeting process are as follows
1. Identify the proposals which are already involved in capital budgeting.
2. Do the screening of the proposal for future estimation.
3. Evaluate the different type of proposals.
4. Fix the priorities of the proposals.
5. Final approval and planning of the capital expenditure.
6. Implement the proposal.
7. Review the proposal.
Calculation of the present value: - in this the worth of the future sum is given and the specified rate of return is been shown. It has lots of variations in this is that the future cash flow is discounted at the discount rate and it also represents the low present value of future cash flow.
The acceptance rule is the rule which is used for the communication purpose and it is used in unilateral contracts which makes an offer and will be accepted by some act. This rule also determines whether the agreement is from both sides or not. The offer may only be accepted if the offeror is the person for whom the offer is made. If the offer is accepted then the offer can be accepted without any modification
Underwriting is a process in which there are those financial service providers such as bank, investments and insurers which uses these to find out the eligibility of a customer to receive the products which is owned by them such as equity capital, insurance and credit. In this process there are risks which are involved and mostly financial provider participates in those kinds of risks and remain prepared to tackle them.
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